Biyernes, Oktubre 28, 2011

Novel in Tagalog

1.      Lope K. Santos

In the field of literature

Santos was born in Pasig, Rizal, Philippines - as Lope C. Santos He used Kanseko instead of Canseco for his middle name to show his nationalism. During his time, the letter C had begun falling out of use in favor of the letter K in the Tagalog alphabet. Santos studied at Escuela Normal Superior de Maestros (Normal Superior School of Teachers) and Escuela de Derecho (Law School); and got his Bachelor of Arts degree in Colegio Filipino (Filipino College). He became an expert in dupluhan, a popular poetical debate competition in his time, which can be compared to balagtasan, a similar contest but with shorter discourse.
In 1900, he served as editor on publications written in Tagalog, such as Muling Pagsilang (Rebirth) and Sampaguita, which he founded through Philippine President Manuel L. Quezon, he was appointed as director of the Surian ng Wikang Pambansa (National Language Institute).

Political career

Santos became governor of Rizal province from 1910 to 1913, and governor of Nueva Vizcaya from 1918 to 1920. During the 5th Philippine Legislature, he also served as Senator in the Twelfth Districtunder the Nacionalista Party.

Personal life

On February 10, 1900, Santos married Simeona Salazar and they had 5 children. He had an operation for his liver disease but later died. Santos' last request on his deathbed was to make Tagalog a National Language of the Philippines.

Example Works:
The famous Tagalog novel Banaag at Sikat was published in 1906. It is about Delfin and his love for the daughter of a rich landlord. 
Buod ng BANAAG AT SIKAT, Kathambuhay ni Lope K. Santos
Summary of From Early Dawn to Full Light, a novel by Lope K. Santos


MAIN CHARACTERS
two friends: Delfin and Felipe

Delfin is a socialist. He is poor. He writes for a newspaper and studies law.

Felipe is an anarchist who wants to do away with rich landowners. He himself comes from a rich family, but he hates his father who is a leader in their town of Silangan. Felipe decides to leave his luxurious home and goes to live with Don Ramon, his ninong (godfather) in Manila, whom he also learns to hate for being rich.  Felipe falls in love with a commoner named Tentay but is forced to return home by his father. 

2.      (Valeriano) Hernandez Peña

Filipino novelist considered to be the Father of the Tagalog Novel, a distinction given to him for his Nena at Neneng, acclaimed as the first novel ever published in the vernacular in 1905. He was also the writer behind Kasaysayan ng Mag-inang Mahirap, Mga Tinik ng Bulaklak, Dangal ng Magulang and Hatol ng Panahon.

Born on December 12, 1858 in San Jose, Bulacan, Hernandez-Peña was the youngest of the three children of a poor family. His parents were Marcos Hernandez, a village platero or goldsmith, and Dominga de la Peña, a seamstress. At the age of 10, he already knew how to read and write in Tagalog. He enrolled in a public school and finished his elementary education. Although fluent in Spanish, he seldom used it because of his great love for Tagalog. When his father died, he had stopped his schooling. At age 12, he already had to help support his mother and sisters.

Five years after his father’s death, his mother passed away. He assumed the responsibility of being the sole support of his sisters. His delicate handwriting helped him to get a position as court clerk in the municipality of Bulacan. At the age of 45, he married Victoria Laktaw. She was the relative of Pedro Serrano Laktaw, the author of a Spanish-Tagalog and Tagalog-Spanish dictionary.

Example Works:
Itinuturing na obra maestra ang nobelang Kasaysayan ng Magkaibigang Nena at Neneng ni Valeriano Hernandez-Peña na kinilalang “Ama ng Nobelang Tagalog.” Umiikot ang istorya kina Nena at Neneng, sa mga pagsubok na kailangang tiisin ng kanilang pagkakaibigan, at sa magkaibang kapalaran nila nang magpakasal sa kani-kaniyang kasintahan.

3.      Aurelio Tolentino
Aurelio Tolentino (born October 13, 1867 – died July 5, 1915) one of the literary giants of the early 20th century Tagalog literature.
Tolentino was a former Katipunero who joined Andres Bonifacio in locating secret headquarters in the mountains of Montalban and San Mateo, Rizal. They chose Pamitinan Cave as their quarter, until it was discovered by the Spaniards on April 12, 1895.
He was captured during the outbreak of the revolution and was imprisoned for nine months. Later, he founded the Junta de Amigos, an organization comprised of Katipuneros which aimed to expel the American colonizers.
After the Philippine revolution, Aurelio Tolentino concentrated on literature: becoming a playwright, novelist and orator in Spanish, Tagalog and Pampango.
Some of his contributions are:
drama/play --  Kahapon, Ngayon at Bukas (1902) and Bagong Cristo (1907);
novel – Maring (1908)Buhay (1909) and Buhok ni Ester (1914).
His most famous work in verse is Dakilang Asal (Noble Behavior), a series of poems in which he described the proper behavior that young people should observe.
He is the editor of La Patria, El Liberal, El Pueblo, El Imparcial, Ing Balen and Ing Emangabisan. He founded the Filipinas, a cooperative organization, and El Parnaso Filipino, a research institute for Tagalog literature, poetry and oration.

4.      Iñigo Ed. Regalado
Iñigo Ed. Regalado (1 June 1888 - 24 July 1974) was a Filipino poet, journalist, and novelist. He was the son of Iñigo Corcuera Regalado, the renowned Tagalog printer and journalist. His mother was Saturnina Reyes. Iñigo Ed Regalado was one of the "powerful voices" in the newspapers and magazines during the first part of the 1900s. It was during his time when the Golden Age of the Tagalog Novel (1905 - 1921) started.  The whole period of the Golden Age of the Tagalog Novel was from 1905 to 1935.

He was born in Sampaloc, Manila. He received his Bachelor of Arts degree from the Liceo de Manila in 1907. He finished studying Law from the Academia dela Jurisprudencia on 1913. He became a writer in the newspapers Taliba, Ang Mithi (The Goal), Ang Watawat (The Flag), Pagkakaisa (Unity), the weekly newspaper Ilang-ilang, and Liwayway.
He died on 24 July 1974 because of lung cancer in Lourdes Hospital in Manila at the age of 86.
   §  Madaling Araw (Dawn) (1909)
Ang Madaling Araw ay masalimuot at malawak na nobelang tinalakay ang maraming bagay mula pansarili hanggang panlipunan at pampulitikang usapin. Isang malaking hibla, na sinusuhayan ng ilang salaysay ang nag-uugnay sa pakikipagsapalaran ng mga tauhan.
   §  Kung Magmahal ang Dalaga (How a Maiden Loves) (1911)
   §  Ang Labing-apat na Awa (The Fourteen Graces) (1912)
   §  Sampagitang Walang Bango (Jasmine Without Fragrance) (1921)
   §  May Pagsinta'y Walang Puso (Heartless Love) (1921)
   §  Ang Anak ng Dumalaga (Child of the Pullet) (1933)
   §  Naging Lunas ng Pighati (Became the Solution to Sorrow) (1933)
   §  Dalaginding (Young Maiden)

5.      Roman Reyes

Roman Guzman Reyes is one of the most popular Filipino writers in the 20th century. He is attributed as "Father of Realism" because of his realistic subjects. He wrote the trilogy Bulaklak ng Kalumpang, Wakas ng Pagtitiis and Hinagpis at Ligaya, which became landmarks of Tagalog novels (Nobelang Tagalog) during the American period.

Roman G. Reyes was born in Bigaa (now Balagtas), Bulacan in February 28, 1858. He studied at Colegio de San Jose and finished on 1874 as maestro superior. He and his family went to Manila on 1899 and there he started to write novels which critics considered as one of the most important collection of written works. Critics considered Reyes as one of the most important novelist in the first chapter in the history of Tagalog novels. He died in October 19, 1926.

            Example Works:
            Bulaklak ng Kalumpang
            Ang trilohiya ay mahaba’t masalimuot na salaysay na sumasaklaw sa iba’t ibang pangyayari sa buhay ng maraming tauhang gaya nina Geleng at Yeyeng, Serafin at Ismael, Tale, Bindoy, at mga magulang.
Nagsimula ang Bulaklak ng Kalumpang sa paglalarawan ng kapitbahay sa ganda at kabutihan ni Geleng, ang pambihirang babae na may katangian nina Ninay, Urbana at Felisa, at Maria Clara. Ngunit ang gayong birtud ng babae ang pinagbuntunan ng pagmamalupit ng kaniyang mga magulang.

6.      Jose Narciso Sevilla y Tolentino

Jose De La Cruz (Huseng Sisiw)

The following biography of Jose dela Cruz, popularly known by his pen name Huseng Sisiw, was written in Tagalog by Jose N. Sevilla y Tolentino in the early 1920s. Tinawag siyáng si Huseng Sisiw, sa pagka't siyá ay mahiliging kumain ng sisiw. Siya ay tubo sa makasaysayang bayan ng Tondo at talagang ipinanganak siyang makata. 

7.      Jose Esperanza Cruz
Jose Esperanza Cruz is a novelist and the one who wrote the Tatlong Maria.
Example works:
Tatlong Maria isang kathang pampelikula ni T. Sawamura. Hango sa nobela ni Jose Esperanza Cruz sa Liwayway. And the only Novel published during the Japanese Occupation.
8.      Julian Cruz Balmaceda
Julian Cruz Balmaceda (sometimes spelled as Balmaseda) (January 28, 1885–September 18, 1946) a Filipino poet, essayist, playwright, novelist,journalist and linguist. He made several works written in Tagalog, English and Spanish languages.
Balmaceda was born on Orion, Bataan on January 28, 1885. He attended Colegio de San Juan de Letran for college. Two years later, he finished law onEscuela de Derecho (School of Law) under the same college.
When he was fourteen, his first written play entitled Sugat ng Puso (Broken Heart). His major play, Ang Piso ni Anita (Anita's One Peso Coin) won first place in a play writing contest sponsored by the Bureau of Posts. The play is all about thriftiness and was composed of three stages.
            Example Works:
   §  Sa Bunganga ng Pating (On the Shark's Mouth) - condemns usurers and usurpers.
   §  Budhi ng Manggagawa (Worker's Will), Dugo ng Aking Ama (My Father's Blood), Kaaway na Lihim (Secret Enemy) - discussed his ideals on socialism.
   §  Ang Tala sa Kabundukan (The Star on the Mountains) - a musical play composed of three stages.
   §  Kayamanang Lumilipad (Treasury Flies) - an opera of three stages.
   §  Ale-aleng Namamayong (Lady under the Umbrella) - a poem about sacrifice of love.
   §  Ang Hampas ng Lupa (Nature's Guilt) - one stage.
   §  Ligayang Nawawala (Dissipating Happiness) - short story.
   §  Heneral Gregorio del Pilar - historical play of three stages that narrates the death of Filipino war general Gregorio del Pilar on the Battle of Tirad Pass.
   §  Sangkuwaltang Abaka (One Penny-worth Abaca) - one of his major breakthrough; it was played many times during Japanese occupation. Sangkuwaltang Abaka was re-played after the war using the title Sino Ba Kayo? (Who are They?) that likewise, became a major play.
   §  Sining at Agham ng mga Dulang Iisahing Yugto (Science and Arts of One-Staged Plays) - book compilation of his different plays. It explained the existence of arts and sciences when making one-staged plays. The book includes Sino Ba Kayo?; Dahil sa Anak (Because of His/Her Child); Ang Palabas ni Suwan (Suwan's Show); Higanti ng Patay (Dead Man's Revenge); Ang Libingan ng Bayani (The Hero's Tomb); Gregorio H. del Pilar.

9.      Faustino Aguilar
Faustino S. Aguilar (born on 15 February 1882 in Malate, Manila – 1955) is a pioneering Filipino novelist, journalist, revolutionary, union leader, and editor. Faustino was one of the first novelists in the Philippines to explore and present social realism through literature.  
As a novelist, he authored the Tagalog-language novels :
Busabos ng Palad (Pauper of Fate) in 1909, Sa Ngalan ng Diyos (In the Name of God) in 1911, Ang Lihim ng Isang Pulo (The Secret of an Island) in 1926, Ang Patawad ng Patay (The Pardon of the Dead) in 1951, Ang Kaligtasan (The Salvation) in 1951, and Pinaglahuan (Place of Disappearance) in 1906 (published in 1907).
As a revolutionary, Faustino was a member of the Katipunan. His novels portrayed themes of ruthlessness and injustice in society.Aguilar became a Katipunan member when he was fourteen years old. Aguilar worked in different branches of the Philippine government. One particular office is the Department of Labor.



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